Revealing planets, disks, and brown dwarfs around young, solar analogs

Revealing planets, disks, and brown dwarfs around young, solar analogs

Within the Young Suns Exoplanet Survey (YSES) we are observing a homogeneous sample of 70 solar-mass members of the approximately 16 Myr-old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus association to search for sub-stellar companions.
High-contrast imaging observations with VLT/SPHERE/IRDIS already revealed (i) a shadowed transition disk around Wray 15-788 that shows significant signs of ongoing planet formation and (ii) a wide-orbit (>500 au) brown dwarf companion of approximately 30 Jupiter masses. Most intriguing, though, was (iii) the recent discovery of a low-mass companion of 14±3 Jupiter masses that orbits TYC 8998-760-1 at a separation of 160 au. New data of the system confirms that this young, solar analog harbors a second planet that is of even lower mass (~6 Jupiter masses) and very red color, yet farther away from the primary (~320 au) than the confirmed companion. This is very likely to be the first multi-planet system detected by direct imaging observations around a star of one solar mass.
In addition to the SPHERE observations, we identify further companions to our Young Suns outside the instrument’s field of view in the second data release of the Gaia mission. Based on parallaxes and proper motions provided in this catalogue, we detect three additional sub-stellar companions at separations larger than 1000 au amongst our sample.
By combining Gaia astrometry with the high-contrast imaging capabilities of SPHERE, our survey will provide a complete census of wide orbit sub-stellar companions for a statistically highly significant sample of young, solar-type stars. From the current results we derive a preliminary probability of 7.1±3.1% for solar type stars to host wide-orbit sub-stellar companions.

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